Diabetes Mellitus Treatment of Diabetes: Diabetes Mellitus or diabetes is a Metabolic disorder in which the body loses its ability to produce the main anabolic hormone of the body called Insulin. Naturally, Insulin is produced by beta cells of pancreatic islet.
It regulates the metabolism of carbohydrates, fats, and protein by helping the absorption of glucose from the blood into the liver, fat, and skeletal muscle cells to be converted into useful energy. When a person has diabetes, this metabolism abolishes, which results in a marked increase in the amount of blood sugar.
Types of Diabetes Mellitus and their causes
To treat diabetes, one should be aware of its types and their respective causes for precise treatment. Doctors usually break diabetes into four sub-categories that are described below:
This type of diabetes Mellitus occurs due to damaged beta cells. It causes less or no production of Insulin by Pancreas. Patients who have this type of diabetes have to substitute insulin through injections for controlling their blood sugar. 10% of patients with diabetes are victims of this type.
The exact cause of type 1 is unknown, but it is said that our immune system that normally fights harmful bacteria and viruses destroys the beta cells in the pancreas. Type 1 diabetes can be caused by genetic susceptibility and environmental factors.
This type of diabetes occurs when Insulin produced in the body is insufficient or doesn’t work properly. Around 90% of patients have this type of Diabetes. This type of diabetes can be controlled by proper diet, exercise, and abstinence. Medical treatment is also employed.
The significant cause of type 2 diabetes is the resistance shown by cells to Insulin. Thus, instead of becoming a source of energy for cells, blood glucose starts building up in the bloodstream.
The same genetic and environmental factors are believed to be causing this type of diabetes. Another big cause of Type 2 diabetes is obesity though all patients of this type are not obese.
Prediabetes occurs when your blood sugar is higher than normal, but it’s not high enough to diagnose type 2 diabetes.
Gestational diabetes is high blood sugar during pregnancy—insulin-blocking hormones produced by the placenta cause this type of diabetes. Females usually recover from this after delivery.
Their symptoms of Diabetes Mellitus depend on the level to which your blood sugar dislodges from the normal level, i.e., 140mg/dL. Some people, especially those with prediabetes or type 2 diabetes, may not bear symptoms initially. In type 1 diabetes, symptoms appear and intensify quickly. Some common symptoms of diabetes are listed below.
- Weight loss
- Excess urination
- Unclear vision
- Numbness or tingling of hand and feet
- Extreme fatigue
- Sores that don’t heal
- Dry and itchy skin.
- Frequent yeast infections or urinary tract infections.
Age: Humans with ages less than 30-40 years are more at risk of type 1 while others are more prone to type 2.
Family History: Offspring and siblings of a diabetic patient are more at risk of diabetes (Type 1 and 2 both)
Environmental Factors: People living in an environment occupied by viral illness are more at risk of both types
Presence of damaging immunity system: The presence of autoantibodies (damaging immunity system) in the body increases the risk of developing type 1 diabetes.
Weight and Inactivity: The excess of fatty tissues in a fat person’s body makes cells resistant to insulin. Thus, inactivity is an indirect cause of type 2 diabetes because a person puts on weight by his inactivity.
Gestational diabetes: Females that had gestational diabetes during pregnancy are more prone to type 2 diabetes.
Polycystic ovary syndrome: For women having polycystic ovary syndrome are at higher risks of type 2 diabetes.
High blood pressure: Hypertension with blood pressures over 140/90 mmHg increases the risk of type 2 diabetes.
Abnormal cholesterol and triglyceride: People having low levels of high-density lipoprotein-good cholesterol and high levels of triglycerides in their bodies are at higher risks of type 2 diabetes
There are different methods of diagnosis used to identify diabetes depending on the health and strength of the patient. These tests are mainly composed of blood tests and other screening tests.
Fasting Plasma Glucose is natural to test. Your blood sugar is tested after you have fasted for 8 hours, immediate measurement of more than 126mg/dL of blood sugar, or a 2-hour plasma glucose level of 200mg/dL indicates hyperglycemia.
Glycated Hemoglobin Test (A1C) measures the amount of sugar attached to hemoglobin in the form of Glycosylated Hemoglobin. The percentage of glycosylated hemoglobin in the total amount of hemoglobin is an effective indication for long-term diabetes.
Including a percentage of more than 6.5%, the person is said to diabatic. Also, overweight combined with one or more other risk factors for diabetes (e.g., first-degree relative with diabetes, BP >140/90 mm Hg, and HDL < 35 mg/dL and/or triglyceride level >250 mg/dL) are also considered dependable for diagnosis of diabetes.
Treatment of Diabetes:
Monitoring your blood sugar
Doctors often prescribe a scheduled sugar-testing plan based four times a day if you are an Insulin user. Diabetes Mellitus is the only way to ensure that your blood sugar doesn’t overshoot the targeted level. Many patients with type 2 diabetes get worse day by day by not keeping track of their blood sugar.
Patients must have glucose meters in their homes. The glucose monitor is even better because of its advanced technology. It provides useful information about the trends of the sugar level, keeping the record of previous checks. Furthermore, the A1C test is also an important source to tell about the long-term health of a diabetic patient. These are the following of Treatment of Diabetes.
Insulin therapy is a must for patients with type 1 diabetes. Many patients with type 2 diabetes and gestational diabetes may also need Insulin. There are many methods through which patients can feed insulin into the body, including an insulin pen, an insulin pump.
The closed-loop insulin delivery system has been brought to light which is also known as the artificial pancreas. It automatically pumps required insulin into the body when needed.
Oral or other Medication
Sometimes different oral or injected medications are prescribed as well. Some diabetes medicines stimulate your pancreas to produce and release more insulin thus, controlling blood sugar. Some medicines also restrict the amount of glucose produced by the lever thus, reducing the amount of insulin necessary.
The Transplantation of the Pancreas is another treatment of diabetes. Still, it brings problems like organ rejection by the immunity system, and the drugs used to inhibit organ rejection have serious. Transplantation is only used when diabetes is uncontrollable.
Patients that are obese with a body mass index over 35 may benefit from gastric bypass. Diabetes Mellitus bears some long-term disadvantages, and even advantages are not guaranteed.